El comercio internacional y la traducción

d08d168449c69391d38bfe6a7e7395d7El comercio internacional de bienes y servicios es cada vez más activo y multilateral. El intercambio comercial internacional beneficia a los pueblos retroalimentando las relaciones culturales y económicas. La internacionalización de bienes y servicios es ahora más accesible ya que innumerables herramientas comerciales ponen al alcance de pequeñas y medianas empresas y emprendedores la posibilidad de comunicar al mundo lo que se produce y lo que se busca a través de Internet.

La comunicación es la base de todo intercambio y para que sea efectiva es fundamental utilizar un idioma en común, y el comercio internacional obviamente no es la excepción. Por lo tanto las traducciones son indispensables cuando se desea llegar a un público con un idioma distinto. Gracias a la traducción además es posible tener presencia digital en todo el mundo, mostrar y vender productos y servicios a cualquier público extranjero.

La base de la presencia internacional es una página web en dos o más idiomas, que muestre al mundo el producto o servicio que se ofrece, comunicándolo de la forma adecuada, en el idioma adecuado. Comunicar en el mismo idioma del público al que queremos llegar es la base de la confianza, indispensable para generar negocios fructíferos.

Los profesionales de la traducción además de conocer los idiomas con los que trabajan, poseen un conocimiento cabal de la cultura de los pueblos que utilizan dichos idiomas, por lo que al traducir un mensaje, documento, página web, etc. ponen al servicio de la comunicación mucho más que la corrección lingüística. El profesional de la traducción es un aliado indispensable para el comercio exterior, que logra transmitir la confianza necesaria para que la comunicación en los distintos idiomas sea exitosa.


This Day in History: The World Health Organization Is Established (1948)

logo-whoThe World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, with its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. WHO is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its predecessor, the Health Organization, was an agency of the League of Nations.

The constitution of the World Health Organization had been signed by all 61 countries of the United Nations by 22 July 1946, with the first meeting of the World Health Assembly finishing on 24 July 1948. It incorporated the Office International d’Hygiène Publique and the League of Nations Health Organization. Since its creation, it has been responsible for playing a leading role in the eradication of smallpox. Its current priorities include communicable diseases, in particular, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis; the mitigation of the effects of non-communicable diseases; sexual and reproductive health, development, and aging; nutrition, food security and healthy eating; occupational health; substance abuse; and drive the development of reporting, publications, and networking.

WHO is responsible for the World Health Report, a leading international publication on health, the worldwide World Health Survey, and World Health Day (7th of April of every Year).

Origin: The Free Dictionary

Objection! Confusing courtroom jargon made clear

Origin: BBC Radio 4

Are you confounded by courtroom communication and longing to learn some legal lingo?

All professions, industries and many other specialist groupings have their own codes, languages and acronyms which can exclude outsiders – intentionally or otherwise. Lucy Read is a family law barrister and chair of The Transparency Project. She joined Michael Rosen and Dr Laura Wright on Radio 4’s Word of Mouth to discuss the language of the courtroom.

Here’s Lucy’s guide to some basic terms…

1. Barristers and solicitors

All barristers and solicitors are lawyers, but a lawyer can’t be both – they are either one or the other.

2. Counsel / Queen’s Counsel (QC)

Counsel is another name for a barrister. When the judge asks for “counsel only” it means she wants to see only the lawyers without their clients. Queen’s Counsel (QC) is a senior barrister who has been given the rank of “QC” as a mark of excellence. Also called a silk (they “take silk” – something to do with the special garments worn by QCs). Any barrister who isn’t a QC is a “junior barrister” no matter how senior they are. Barristers who are experienced but not senior enough to be a QC are called a “senior junior”. Yes, daft isn’t it?

3. Chambers

Chambers are what the rest of the world call offices. Mainly different because barristers don’t (generally) work in a “firm” or company, but are independent sole traders who club together to pay for a room in chambers and share clerks (employed staff who receive enquiries, get in work and allocate it).


4. Skeleton

No, it’s probably not what you’re thinking. Skeleton is a written legal argument in outline form.


5. Submissions

Submissions are the lawyers’ speeches at the end of the case (this is sometimes done in writing).

6. Issue

A phrase used by lawyers to mean the things that are in dispute – but only the ones that actually need to be decided for the judge to make a decision. (Cue affronted client when told that something that is very important to them is “not an issue” and hurried explanation that what is important to the client is not always relevant for the judge…).

7. Ex parte

This Latin phrase means “in the absence of a party” and applies in family cases mainly when one party goes to court to get a domestic violence injunction in place before the other party is told (because if warned in advance they might take unwanted action). An “ex parte” hearing also includes a hearing that the other party is aware of but excluded from, such as in a national security context.

8. Without prejudice

This relates to private correspondence and negotiation that the judge should not be told about until after they have decided the case.

9. Prima facie

More Latin. Prima facie means “on the face of it”. Someone who has a “prima facie case” is someone who has presented enough evidence for a case to be looked at, but doesn’t mean the case will necessarily be heard in full once the details have been thoroughly scrutinised.

10. Housekeeping

Housekeeping refers to the administrative tasks that need to be sorted out at the start of a hearing, such as which order are the witnesses going in and checking everyone has the appropriate documentation.


11. Part-heard

Part-heard is when a hearing breaks off to a later date half way through the evidence. When the case is part-heard the same advocates and judge have to continue the case until the evidence is finished and the judgment given – which means lots of diary juggling.

12. My learned friend

“My learned friend” is what barristers call one another in court when they have forgotten the other one’s name.

13. My friend

Simply “My friend” is what barristers call solicitors when they are in pompous git mode (making the point that the solicitor isn’t a barrister).

14. Disguised compliance

Disguised compliance is a complicated term social workers use when they think parents are lying but can’t prove it (i.e. when parents disguise the fact they disagree there is anything wrong with their parenting by superficially doing what they are asked to in order to get social workers off their back). “Putting on a show” or “game playing” would work just as well.

15. Paramountcy principle

Paramountcy principle means that a child’s welfare trumps everything else.

16. Paginated bundle

The world “paginated” refers to numbering the pages of a document, and a “bundle” is what lawyers call the files of court papers, put in order and separated into numbered sections so that the judge, lawyers and witnesses can all find the same documents in the same place (in theory). A “paginated bundle” is therefore simply the files of court papers, with page numbers, and separated into numbered sections.

To learn more about the language of the courtroom see Lucy Read’s website, Pink Tape.

La Organización Mundial del Comercio y los países en desarrollo

Desarrollo y comercio

Disposiciones especiales para los países en desarrollo

Más de tres cuartas partes de los Miembros de la OMC son países en desarrollo o países menos adelantados. Todos los Acuerdos de la OMC incluyen disposiciones especiales para ellos, por ejemplo plazos más largos para cumplir acuerdos y compromisos, medidas destinadas a aumentar sus oportunidades comerciales y asistencia para ayudarlos a crear la infraestructura necesaria para llevar a cabo las tareas relacionadas con la OMC, resolver las diferencias y aplicar las normas técnicas.

La Conferencia Ministerial de 2001 que tuvo lugar en Doha fijó cometidos, entre ellos la celebración de negociaciones, en lo que respecta a una gran variedad de temas de interés para los países en desarrollo. Algunos han aplicado a las nuevas negociaciones el calificativo de Ronda de Doha para el Desarrollo.

Antes, en 1997, una reunión de alto nivel sobre las iniciativas comerciales y la asistencia técnica para los países menos adelantados desembocó en la adopción de un “marco integrado”, en el que participan seis organismos intergubernamentales, destinado a ayudar a los países menos adelantados a aumentar su capacidad comercial, así como en cierto número de acuerdos adicionales sobre acceso preferencial a los mercados.

Existe además en la OMC un Comité de Comercio y Desarrollo, asistido por un Subcomité de Países Menos Adelantados, que se encarga de estudiar las necesidades especiales de los países en desarrollo. Sus funciones comprenden la aplicación de los acuerdos, la cooperación técnica y el fomento de la participación de los países en desarrollo en el sistema mundial de comercio.

Fuente: OMC Desarrollo

Día del idioma español

Cada 23 de abril se celebra el «Día de la lengua española» en las Naciones Unidas para concienciar al personal de la Organización, y al mundo en general, acerca de la historia, la cultura y el uso del español como idioma oficial.

En 2010, la Organización decidió celebrar su diversidad cultural y multilingüismo a través del establecimiento de los «Días de las lenguas» para sus seis idiomas oficiales. Las fechas se eligieron por su simbolismo o importancia histórica para cada uno de los idiomas.

20 de marzo – Día de la lengua francesa, coincidiendo con el Día Internacional de la Francofonía.

20 de abril – Día de la lengua china, dedicado a Tsan Chieh, creador de la escritura china.

23 de abril – Día de la lengua inglesa, que coincide con el aniversario de la muerte de William Shakespeare, el más célebre dramaturgo y poeta de la literatura inglesa.

23 de abril – Día del idioma español, fecha en que se conmemora la muerte del gran genio de las letras españolas, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra.

6 de junio – Día de la lengua rusa, en el aniversario del nacimiento de Alexander Pushkin, fundador de la literatura rusa moderna.

18 de diciembre – Día de la lengua árabe, que conmemora la aprobación en 1973 del árabe como idioma oficial y de trabajo de la Asamblea General y sus Comisiones Principales.


Annual report on EU translation


The Translation Centre for the Bodies of the European Union recently published its “Highlights of the Year” for 2016.

From Words to Deeds: translation & the law

The Translation Centre for the Bodies of the European Union recently published its “Highlights of the Year” for 2016.

The 40-page report includes key figures about activities – translation, revision, editing, subtitling, and term lists – as well as information about the Centre’s clients, inter-institutional cooperation, external outreach and communication. 

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Traducción publicitaria de la moda del vestir | Silvia Borque Velasco


La traducción publicitaria en el mundo de la moda es un interesantísimo tema de estudio. Aqui compartimos un pequeño trabajo de aproximación a las actitudes traductológicas observadas en una pequeña muestra de ellos, los anuncios que aparecen en las publicaciones de Vogue España y Francia durante un año, pero el estudio de este campo podría ir mucho más allá. Surgen interesantes preguntas que plantean desafíos comunicacionales para potenciar las ventas.

📚 Glossarissimo!


Publicidad, moda y traducción, tres campos no siempre relacionados pero con mucho que decir. Este trabajo hace un breve análisis de la publicidad como sistema de comunicación y de persuasión contextualizado en un mundo global, de la publicidad de moda en la revista Vogue como el perfecto ejemplo de publicidad internacional y globalizada, y de las posibilidades de traducción que se utilizan en este medio a la hora de trasladar un anuncio de moda de un país a otro centrándose en lo publicado durante el año 2013 en la revista Vogue en sus ediciones francesa y española, junto a las diferencias que se observan en el tratamiento lingüístico que se hace de la publicidad en ambos países.

PDF file, 88 pages

via Unversidad de Valladolid

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From forbidden translations to impossible translations – Lexiophiles

When you work in the professional translation sector, your daily routine can range from fabulously exciting to rather humdrum, depending on the text you’re working on at the time. If you’re currently in the middle of a rather monotonous translation, why not take a minute to reflect on just how exciting – and even dangerous – the craft can be?

Forbidden languages

Language can be hugely political. Since time immemorial, invading oppressors have sought to use language to their own ends, often looking to stamp out local languages and impose their own tongue as part of their despotic regime. It’s a practice that continues to this day, with those who oppose the new rule refusing the enforced linguistic adoption and sticking with their native tongue as an act of defiance and subversion.

The Catalan language is an excellent example of this. Originating from Vulgar Latin in north-eastern Spain and southern France, around the eastern Pyrenees, Catalan dates back to the Middle Ages. The language flourished for centuries, but its fate in France was sealed when the French First Republic banned official use of Catalan (along with other languages such as Basque and Breton) shortly after the French Revolution in 1789.

Catalan’s use declined in Spain too, with the War of Spanish Succession in 1714 imposing the use of Spanish for all legal paperwork. Despite this, the liberal literary world embraced Catalan, with a number of renowned literary works being published in the language during the 19th century.

5ebec05a0ffde39f3fc95fc073b1c8e99a1e37e26fd0d6f8aeb15epimgpsh_fullsize_distr-676x320However, it was during the 20th century that Catalan faced its greatest threat to date, when its use was banned in the public administration and in schools under Francisco Franco’s rule for more than 35 years. That meant a whole generation of Catalonians growing up while being forced to use Spanish in public contexts. Despite the enforced linguistic suppression, Catalonians remained fiercely loyal to their language, promoting its use at home and ensuring that their children grew up appreciating (and understanding) their linguistic heritage. The result is that Catalan survived Franco and now has 4.1 million speakers, making it the 16th most spoken language in Europe.

Forbidden translations

It’s not just languages that are forbidden. The translation of individual documents can also be incredibly politically charged. One example is the Talmud.

The Talmud has served as one of the central texts of Rabbinic Judaism for over 1,500 years. It contains the teachings and views of thousands of rabbis and runs to more than 6,200 pages in standard print. The teachings cover everything from law, ethics and philosophy to history, customs and lore.

During the 70 years of the Soviet Union’s existence, the printing of the Talmud was entirely forbidden. Not one of the Talmud’s 63 tractates was permitted to be translated into Russian and printed. The same law applied to all Jewish religious texts. The Bolsheviks’ efforts to stamp out Talmudic learning were very successful – to date, no Russian translation of the whole Talmud has ever been produced.

However, a new project led by the Knizhniki publishing house is seeking to put that right. One of the most respected book publishers in Moscow, Knizhniki announced plans in 2016 to undertake the translation and publication of the entire Talmud in Russian. It is not a task to be undertaken lightly – Chabad-Lubavitch Rabbi Boruch Gorin, Knizhniki’s chief editor, comments,

“We hope to release about four volumes a year. If all goes well, the entire Talmud will be published in Russian within 10 to 12 years.”

Impossible translations

While some translations have been ruled out by law, others have left translation services stumped for other reasons. The Voynich manuscript is one such example.

Written by an unknown author at some point between 1404 and 1438, the Voynich manuscript is an illustrated medieval codex that has left translators lost and confused for more than six centuries. The mysterious text is accompanied by over 200 illustrations, covering herbal, astronomical, biological and pharmaceutical topics. While this led scholars to conclude that the text probably related to a form of medieval medicine, the bizarre language remained indecipherable.

The impossibility of translating the Voynich manuscript has attracted attention from around the world. Even the CIA and NSA have tried and failed to understand it. However, mathematicians at the RAS Institute of Applied Mathematics believe they have discovered why the manuscript has remained such a mystery – it was encrypted.

A statistical analysis has concluded that the manuscript was written in two languages, with vowels and spaces removed. While full understanding has still not been achieved, the researchers believe that the manuscript was written in either English or German (accounting for around 60% of the text), along with a Romance language (Italian, Spanish and Latin are all possibilities).

Without the inclusion of the vowels, it is impossible to understand the manuscript at present, as different vowels could lead to different meanings throughout the text. Nevertheless, it’s possible that with the advancement of time and technology, the completion of this ‘impossible’ translation will finally be achieved. We look forward to that day!

Author bio

Louise Taylor is a freelance writer who writes for the Tomedes Blog.


Origen: From forbidden translations to impossible translations – Lexiophiles

A la medida humana | Laboratorio del Lenguaje

Estamos demasiado acostumbrados a utilizar como forma de medir, y de expresar las medidas, el sistema métrico decimal y no nos damos cuenta de que éste, con su definición del metro como “la diezmillonésima parte del cuadrante del meridiano terrestre” o sus actualizaciones para hacerlo más tangible en forma de “barra de platino iridiado” o de longitud de onda de un cierto elemento químico o de espacio recorrido por la luz en el vacío en un determinado tiempo, son todas ellas como quien dice de ayer mismo. El hombre ha necesitado siempre representar los tamaños y ha buscado para hacerlo medidas más al alcance de la vista y, sobre todo, a escala humana, fácilmente comparables con los de alguna parte de su propio cuerpo aunque éstas difieran notablemente de unos individuos a otros. Así surgieron el pie, el paso, la milla o mil pasos, la braza que correspondía a la distancia de punta a punta entre los dedos medios con los brazos extendidos, la yarda inglesa equivalente a la distancia desde la punta de la nariz hasta la punta del dedo medio con el brazo extendido, el codo, la pulgada, el palmo o el jeme. Esta última unidad, el jeme, de nombre quizá desconocido para muchos de los hablantes, es, sin embargo, una de las más utilizadas en la práctica del día a día cuando queremos expresar tamaños reducidos: es la distancia que hay desde la extremidad del dedo pulgar a la del índice, separado el uno del otro todo lo posible; hagamos memoria y confirmaremos cuantas veces hacemos ese sencillo gesto con la mano.


Otras medidas hubieron de ser inventadas para longitudes mayores aunque siempre referidas a las antropométricas: la vara, la legua…  También éstas variaban de un lugar a otro e incluso en el mismo sitio según la época considerada. En muchos pueblos españoles, en los espacios donde se instalaban los mercados y ferias, podemos todavía encontrar grabada en algún muro la medida oficial de la vara para ese reino o esa comarca. La legua, el camino que un hombre a pie o en cabalgadura podía recorrer en una hora, marca aún en nuestra geografía la distancia entre muchas poblaciones que son o fueron importantes; curiosamente esa distancia se aproxima mucho a las siete leguas, unos cuarenta kilómetros actuales, que en el célebre cuento infantil de Pulgarcito (original de Perrault) era lo que el maravilloso calzado permitía al ogro caminar de una sola zancada.

José Ignacio de Arana

Origen: A la medida humana | Laboratorio del Lenguaje